Current and Emerging Treatments for Methamphetamine Use Disorder PMC


Furthermore, vaccines may increase patient compliance since treatment would consist of a few injections over a long period of time. Combination of psychotherapy with active immunotherapy is likely to decrease METH intake as well as relapse once anti-METH vaccine is developed. METH and other drugs of abuse themselves are far too small to be immunogenic; therefore, the first step in active METH immunotherapies is creating a hapten molecule, a chemical derivative of METH, and linking it to immunogenic carrier protein [124]. Subsequently, the conjugate is purified to remove free haptens and mixed with appropriate adjuvants, which help boost the innate immune response. Production of monoclonal METH antibodies involves immunization of mice with immunogenic METH hepten-protein carrier complex, isolation of polyclonal METH antibodies, and complex genetic engineering processes [126].

  • Aftercare services or ongoing treatment provides the best chances of avoiding future relapse.
  • Take our free, 5-minute substance use self-assessment below if you think you or someone you love might struggle with substance addiction.
  • The absence of significant differences between groups based on ACE exposure in direct measures of cognitive function does not preclude the presence of subtle cognitive impairments that may influence addiction severity.

Risk factors

Most treatment regimes begin with medical detox, during which the substance is slowly weaned out of the user’s body. Medical detox is done under the supervision of medical professionals, ensuring clients remain safe and comfortable throughout the process. Prompt treatment could save their life, and it may also help reduce your risk of long-term or permanent damage. In 2020, about 1.5 million people in the United States over the age of 12 had meth use disorder. If you take more than one stimulant at a time, you have a higher risk of experiencing a stroke or heart attack, and your body may overheat. What’s more, combining meth — a stimulant — with depressants like alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines can have a tug-of-war effect on your bodily functions.

Meth Addiction, Anxiety, and Co-Occurring Disorders

If you or a loved one is addicted to meth, call us to learn about rehab options and start living the life you deserve. The reasons for lack of efficacy of clinically tested medications include heterogeneity of METH-abusing population and comorbidity between METH and other psychiatric disorders [19]. Furthermore, more clinical research is needed on the co-use of METH and opioids as well as how their combination affects overdose risk. Moreover, to increase https://ecosoberhouse.com/ the efficacy of pharmaceuticals, particularly dopaminergic, future studies should develop a way to increase the levels of dopamine D2 receptor, which are decreased in individuals chronically abusing METH [69-73]. METH relapse remains the biggest problem in MUD and warrants more pre-clinical and clinical studies. There is no quick and easy cure for meth abuse/addiction, but substance use disorders can be treated with physical and psychological methods.

STAT Plus: Young boy dies in trial for Pfizer Duchenne gene therapy

  • Naltrexone, a drug that’s used to treat alcohol and opioid addiction, has shown promise in treating meth addiction.
  • (A) Major neurotransmitter pathways targeted by medications tested for efficacy in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) and brain areas connected by these pathways.
  • Some medications tested in clinical trials had dual actions, e.g., as monoamine stimulators and antidepressants.
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse supports research in this area, and experiments have been conducted regarding blocking self-administration of methamphetamine in rats.
  • Thus, some people take METH a few times a month while some take the drug every day for extended periods of time, at doses ranging usually from light to moderate [23-25].

Among people aged 12 to 25, the percentage with a past-year MUD remained relatively stable between 2015 and 2019. Among adults aged 26 or older, the percentage with a past-year MUD increased from 0.3% (or 539,000 people) in 2016 to 0.4% (or 904,000 people) in 2019 (Fig.1B) [8]. A recent study [10] reported that, since March 2020, there has been a 23% increase in urine samples taken from various healthcare and clinical settings testing positive for METH nationwide, thus indicating an increase in METH abuse during the COVID19 pandemic. Similarly, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported a recent increase in METH-related overdose deaths during the pandemic [11]. The best method for treating co-occurring disorders is considered to be simultaneous and integrated care for both disorders. In this way, both the addiction and the anxiety can be addressed and managed in order to enhance recovery for both conditions.

CBT for a substance use disorder assumes that drug use is a learned behavior and it emphasizes individual commitment for recovery in order to learn new adaptive behaviors and ways of thinking [90]. Individuals in CBT learn to identify and correct addictive behaviors by applying a range of different skills that can be used to stop METH abuse and to address a range of co-occurring problems. CBT for substance use disorders can be used in many formats, including individual therapy, group therapy and, more recently, computer‐based therapy that are usually delivered during weekly 60-min sessions lasting weeks or as a brief CBT (4-8 sessions) [90, 91]. Overall, participants responded at a significantly higher rate in the treatment group. When screened during weeks five and six, 16.5% of those given the naltrexone/bupropion combination responded, compared to only 3.4% of those in the control group.

meth addiction treatment

Desoxyn, which is d-METH, is rarely medically prescribed due to its strong reinforcing properties. It can only be prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), extreme obesity, or narcolepsy. Therapeutic doses of Desoxyn are mg daily, taken every 12 hours, with dose not exceeding 60 mg/day (reference.medscape.com/drugs). L-METH, a vasoconstrictor, is the active constituent of the Vicks Inhaler decongestant, an over-the-counter product containing about 50 mg of the drug [7]. SAMHSA’s mission is to lead public health and service delivery efforts that promote mental health, prevent substance misuse, and provide treatments and supports to foster recovery while ensuring equitable access and better outcomes.

  • Some folks may do a “run,” which involves taking meth continuously for several hours or days, often without sleeping or eating.
  • Many factors were and are at work, among them caseworker inexperience, a lack of resources and the high bars for removing children from their homes that have been erected by child welfare agencies, policymakers and judges.
  • From the perspective of executive function, inhibitory control is regarded as the central mechanism of emotional regulation (83), and its development is accelerated during the preschool period (84).
  • When you take a drug, certain genetic factors can increase your risk of developing an addiction.Regular drug use changes your brain chemistry, affecting how you experience pleasure.

Your risk of overdose increases if you take a large dose of meth or mix methamphetamine with other drugs. A 2014 study published in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence found that 61 percent of people in treatment for meth addiction relapsed meth addiction within one year. During the period two to five years after discharge from treatment, 25 percent relapsed. The researchers concluded that contingency management was effective for improving treatment outcomes for people who abuse methamphetamine.

Meth Addiction vs. Meth Dependence